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Things to Look for When Hiring a Translation Service Provider

Do you need the services of a professional translation service? If so, you are on the right page. In this article, we are going to share with you a few tips that will help you go with the best translation service provider to meet your business or personal needs. Just make sure you consider these tips before choosing a professional. Read on to find out more.

First of all, make sure you look for a native speaker. Basically, a native speaker is a person who has grown up speaking your target language. In other words, it is their first language. If the writer can’t speak your native language fluently, you don’t need to worry about it. The reason is that you don’t want them to translate the content into your native language. As long as they can communicate with you, everything is fine.

Ideally, you should go with a speaker that can identify errors in the translated piece of content without any problem. However, you can hire a non-native speaker and enjoy a lot of cost benefits. if you want to hire a non-native speaker, make sure that the non-native speaker has a strong grip on the target language. The good thing is that a non-native speaker can be a great translator despite being a non-native speaker of that language.

Another thing you need to consider when hiring a translator is their experience. You can choose from a lot of translators. However, we suggest that you go with someone who has at least three years of experience in the field. It is better to work with a translation company rather than an independent professional. Actually, companies use a quality control system to ensure all of the work is of high quality.

You may want to ask them questions about their quality control system, experience, and other questions that you may have on your mind. After all, you don’t want to hire someone that can’t do the job based on your needs. The idea is to work with someone who can provide error-free work timely fashion. After all, you don’t end up paying for an expensive editor.

The third most important thing look for is to consider the privacy policy of the company. Professional translators have a strong privacy policy. On the other hand, independent translators don’t usually have a strict privacy policy. Companies know that they may face lawsuits if they violate their privacy policy.

On the other hand, an independent professional can save you a lot of money. If you want to go with an independent translator, make sure that the professional is trustworthy and has a lot of experience. In case of a problem, translation firms can figure out a solution in a short period of time.

Long story short, these are some of the primary things that you may want to consider before hiring a translation service for your personal or business needs. Hopefully, these tips will help you go with the best service provider without making grave mistakes.

If you are looking for Japanese Translation Services Singapore or Japanese to English Translation service, you can check out Translation Services.

How to Complete Class 12 English Question Paper on Time?

So, you’re in 12th and have already began English exam preparations through Pull-out Practice Material for class 12. That’s good. Folks, you must have heard or faced a situation, wherein, a student knew all the answers but couldn’t complete the English exam paper on time. In fact, this is a usual complaint of many students appearing in CBSE Class 10 and Class 12 English board exams. Some say the question paper was lengthy, while the others realize their own mistake in dealing with the questions. In fact, the problem restricts not just with the subject of English, but with rest of the exams too. You need to understand that exam time management is the need of any exam as ‘time wasted is marks deducted’. A good English Core Pull-out Worksheets for Class 12 will help you to get over with such issues in your English board exam for Class 12th.

To help you complete the English exam paper on time, we have come up with some very useful tips. Check them below.

  1. Read the question paper

This should be done right after you get the question paper. Spare first 10 minutes to quickly go through the exam question paper. Ensure that there are no missing/disordered pages in the question paper, and then pick the questions to be solved/answered first. You may number them with a pencil, if it doesn’t take too much of your time. Practicing Pull-out Practice Material for class 12 will give you ample expertise to handle the question paper in CBSE board exams.

  1. Be flexible

While practicing CBSE English Core Pull-out Worksheets Class 12, you decided to do ‘Grammar’ section first, but after seeing the exam paper, you find ‘Writing’ section far easier. No worries! It’s your paper and you can change your mind as and when you wish to. Do not stick to a specific mindset that you followed while practicing for the exam through Pull-out Practice Material for class 12. Even if you have practiced a different way while answering English Core Pull-out Worksheets for Class 12, you are free to change your outlook anytime. Just go with the flow!

  1. Manage the time cautiously

Students must divide their time wisely so that they get enough time to answer all the sections of the question paper. How to manage exam time can be best analyzed if you give enough practice to different types of questions through English Core Pull-out Worksheets for Class 12.

  1. Don’t waste time

If you do not know the answer of any particular question, or if you’re dicey about the content of the answer, do not think much. Get on to the next question that you know well. You must have faced similar issue while answering CBSE English Core Pull-out Worksheets Class 12. What you can do is to write whatever you know about that particular question, only when you’ve finished writing rest of the paper. With this, you’ll get some marks, if not full in that particular question. Not a bad deal at all!

Follow these awesome tricks and give enough practice to the English exam through CBSE English Core Pull-out Worksheets Class 12. You’re all set to appear in the exam then.

Good Luck!

Megha Batra is expert author at Rachna Sagar Pvt Ltd-a leading educational publisher in India. The company has been a pioneer in developing and publishing quality educational books for all classes, on a variety of subjects like English, Mathematics, Environmental Studies, Social Studies, Science, Computers, etc. Follow the author for more informative articles…

Teaching in the Digital Era

“In learning, you will teach, and in teaching, you will learn.” ― Phil Collins

Student- Teacher, what is the capital of Kenya?

Assuming you are the teacher and you don’t know the answer. You borrow some time from students and then what will you do? Will you remove a world map and find out the capital or Google it? I am sure most will choose the latter to find an answer. Isn’t it? So will our students.

In this advanced hi-tech world, teachers need to updates themselves with constantly evolving modern expertise. They need to learn and re-learn the apparatus to keep up with the rapidly changing technological world. Along with theoretical and practical acquaintances, technological knowledge also plays a pivotal role in enhancing their quality of teaching. The degree, qualifications, and expertise can only help them to achieve initial success but to succeed in the long run they can’t thrive on the knowledge they acquired at the beginning of their career. In fact, at times technological familiarities contribute more to their success than anything else and help them to gain a competitive edge over others. Therefore, the challenges teachers face is more than before. Tutors need to prepare their students for future opportunities. Yes, for opportunities that might not even exist in present. For any teacher, avant-garde knowledge and an appropriate framework are instrumental to foster out-of-box thinking, for keeping pace to overcome technical challenges, to become a proactive constant learner and maximize student satisfaction. Digital age trainers face constant issues like how to encourage a technologically friendly classroom environment to facilitate students’ involvement and deliver a high quality of experience in teaching.

Generation Zers are digital natives (yes, whether we like it or not). Unlike other generations, they are grown/ growing in an epoch when technologies like smart phones, social media, teleconferences, artificial intelligence, and instant accessibility to any information already exist. In the new era, innovative educational tools like artificial intelligence, digital reader tablets, gamification, 3D printing, cloud technology, mobile technology, video conferencing, and smartboards are preferred teaching aid in creating an active learning environment.

The Internet allows easy availability of information with minute details, explanations, examples, pictures, videos, latest news, up-gradations, knowledge, and skills. In a connected world teachers can join communities of experts, collaborate with other teachers/students/ experts, share their expertise and provide solutions/answers to their students, even other students who need help by providing practical and theoretical advice, useful aids or resources. The added benefits of digitalization are the availability of opportunities for every student to learn at their desired time, place and pace. Learning becomes more flexible, personal and accessible to interested students. Digitalization facilitates in catering needs of individual students e.g.:- online courses on digital marketing, stress management, photography, product management, operating systems, personal finance, etc in assorted classes. Nothing is perfect nor is technology, even it has its pros and cons. One-on-one learning is time-consuming and expensive it can also damage social interactions with one another, face-to-face conversation/interactions and spirit of teamwork.

A good teacher manages both the worlds by being flexible and adapting to new trends. Here’s how some technologies can be adopted by teachers and institutions to increase students engagement-

  1. Word processing applications to write notes, add tables, charts, pictures, footnotes, check spellings and grammatical errors and save notes for future references.
  2. Rather than writing and explaining notes on the boards, teachers through the use of Overhead Projectors can make PowerPoint presentations, show short films, interactive videos or even add audios, sound effects, and images.
  3. Video conferencing enables teachers with high definition live streaming allowing teacher-student interactions and knowledge and information sharing. It also helps in organizing virtual trips which otherwise would never have been possible for students to see.
  4. Teachers can use E-Learning on digital tablets that permit them to answer their learner’s queries, exchange videos, texts, information, presentations, quizzes outside the school hours.
  5. Web-based learning or Online Learning offers convenience and flexibility to students and guarantees the availability of resources from anywhere and at any time.
  6. Intending to maximize enjoyment, motivation, and engagement among student many instructors use Gamification of learning as an educational approach. Gamification is a process for integrating game mechanism to make non-games more enjoyment like adding video gaming can encourage students to achieve faster results in activities that are usually viewed as boring.
  7. Electronic Whiteboards are interactive whiteboards connected to the computer. It works with a projector and the boards are touch screens. It offers the teachers to share screen, text audio, and video files. Students can also record full lectures and use them for future references. It allows integration of several other technologies like microphones, cameras, the Smart notebook app, etc.
  8. Artificial Intelligence AI systems like robots can help to identify the strengths and weaknesses of each apprentice and allows them to decide the learning pace, the curriculum, the form of education and even the instructors. It saves educators time since they can delegate repetitive monotonous tasks like checking assignments.
  9. Cloud technology offers an opportunity for teachers to deliver face-to-face instruction in a virtual environment. The teacher can upload their lessons, marks, notes and slides on cloud application which can be accessed anytime by their learners.
  10. 3D Printing in education allows students to experience the physical world where they can see, feel, touch and study actual creations as the real-world equivalent. Here students are no longer a passive consumer of information but an active, betrothed and occupied apprentice having practical hands-on-approach.

Teachers and educational institutions should focus on digitalization to make their and their students live better by facilitating leaning an augmenting student’s participation through apposite use of technological processes and resources.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Rupal_Jain/207338

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Evidence-Based Educational Interventions

This paper provides an overview of evidence-based educational interventions (EBEIs) and associated practices in school psychology. The profession has, for some time, embraced scientific principles and procedures across areas of professional practice, including diagnosis and classification, assessment, prevention and intervention, consultation, and research and program evaluation. More recently, the profession has embraced evidence-based prevention and intervention practices, intending to implement them in schools. However, doing so requires addressing multiple scientific and practice agendas, including preservice and in-service professional development, systemic school change to promote prevention and intervention program implementation, comprehensive models of mental health and educational services, and the sustainability of evidence-based practices.

Five issues need to be addressed for significant progress to occur in the evidence-based practice movement: (a) practice-research networks should be developed in school psychology; (b) intervention research methodology must be expanded to take into account practice contexts of EBEI implementation; (c) practice guidelines could be developed to facilitate implementation of EBEIs in practice settings; (d) professional development opportunities must be created for practitioners, graduate faculty, and researchers; and (e) collaborative partnerships must occur across the diverse groups involved in the EBEI movement, especially those involved in generating the scientific database of EBEIs.

Consideration of the scientific basis of school psychology interventions and practices is important because schools are the largest provider of child mental health services. Furthermore, growing evidence shows a reciprocal relationship between academic problems and disabilities and mental health problems. Thus, a scientific basis for school psychology prevention, intervention, and related practices seems essential to the promotion of students’ academic success and mental health.

Following developments in evidence-based medicine, clinical psychologists developed a task force to review “empirically validated” treatments for child and adult mental health problems.

The scientific foundation of school psychology can be evaluated by examining practices in both graduate training programs and the practice of psychology in schools.

Graduate Programs

We surveyed graduate programs in school psychology to determine what they are teaching about EBEIs, to investigate their integration of EBEI training, and to understand any barriers to such training. Results of survey indicated:

– A relatively low percentage of school psychology graduate training directors were familiar with the EBEIs included in the survey. When averaging across all interventions listed, 29% of directors reported being “not familiar,” 30% reported being “somewhat familiar,” and 41% reported being “familiar” with the EBEIs.

– Exposure to the EBEIs occurred more frequently in coursework than in practice experience. When averaging across all EBEIs, 41% of directors reported that graduate students received “no exposure,” 39% reported students received “exposure,” and 30% reported students received “experience” with the EBEIs listed.

– Lack of time was rated the most serious challenge to EBEI training.

– A high percentage of training directors reported that students were taught to apply the criteria developed by professional organizations in psychology and education when evaluating intervention outcome research.

A number of interventions considered evidence based by the training directors fell outside the EBEIs incorporated in the survey. Some of these interventions have a weak evidence base.

No formal requirement within school psychology training programs mandates teaching EBEIs, but the commitment to include scientifically supportable interventions in the curriculum will probably grow. Moreover, a number of graduate training programs embrace a scientist-practitioner model and are the most likely to embrace an evidence-based practice framework in future graduate training.

Evidence-Based Practices In Schools

Several recent surveys of evidence-based practices in schools do not paint a very positive picture. A study of the prevalence of substance abuse curricula in U.S. schools showed that many middle schools continue to implement curricula that are either untested or ineffective.

Another study investigated school psychologists’ use of research in practice and the barriers to using research. Knowledge of effective intervention strategies and their use were closely matched, and respondents indicated they would like to use the strategies with greater frequency. Limited time was the top barrier to the use of all strategies. However, for cognitive behavior strategies and social skills training, practitioner training and the ability to adapt interventions to the school setting were significant factors limiting use; lack of support was indicated as a significant barrier to consulting with teachers, suggesting that some systemic support issues may be important.

Professional Standards And Influences On Practice

No formal requirements have made knowledge and use of EBEIs and practice guidelines prerequisites of licensure and credentialing. The major professional groups involved in licensure and credentialing currently do not mandate this level of practice, and national school psychology organizations do not mandate EBEI training as part of graduate program accreditation. Many textbooks used in graduate school psychology programs and publications of the National Association of School Psychologists promote a scientific perspective.

Psychology Practice

Five strategies may promote EBEIs:

1. Develop a practice-research network in school psychology.

2. Promote an expanded methodology for evidence-based practice that takes into account EBEIs in practice contexts.

3. Establish guidelines that school psychology practitioners can use in implementing and evaluating EBEIs in practice.

4. Create professional development opportunities for practitioners, researchers, and trainers. Forge partnerships with other professional groups involved in the EBEI movement.

The purpose of the strategies is to establish a link between research and practice that will help us better understand the effectiveness of interventions and promote their adoption and sustainability.

Looking Ahead: Barriers and Promising Trends

The study of graduate training programs revealed lack of time as one of the most serious obstacles to training in EBEIs. More efficient methods of adding EBEIs to existing coursework and enhancing faculty’s skills must be found. When formulating competency-based training agendas, program organizers must thoroughly integrate field supervisors and other clinical faculty who are involved in direct supervision of school psychology graduate students. The 3-year curriculum of specialist-level training represents another time constraint. Many doctoral-level programs have more options for incorporating EBEIs and related practices into courses.

A high percentage of trainers and students appear to be knowledgeable for evaluating research. Increasingly, it will be important for graduate students to be exposed to the coding systems. Understanding these criteria will promote understanding and selection of appropriate EBEIs.

It will also be important to examine not only interventions and prevention programs identified as evidenced based by the task forces but also other interventions and programs with a strong educational and prevention focus. Professional groups must disseminate information to school psychology trainers to help them select EBEIs. Students who receive EBEI instruction in graduate school should master these programs within a competency-based framework, ensuring that students acquire the skills in a practice context.

Finally, a promising direction in establishing EBEIs in school settings is adoption of multiple levels of intervention programs. Three-tiered systems of prevention are promising because students can progress through a series of interventions before receiving traditional services such as special education. It is critical to teach faculty and graduate students strategies for systemic change in schools so that such systems can be adopted. Such content will facilitate the adoption and sustainability of evidence-based practices and interventions.

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

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The New Era Of Data Transparency

The potential benefits in opening data are not confined to improvements in transparency and accountability in the public sector (as may have been the previous consensus) – in fact, open data can provide the biggest gains by enabling the development of useful services. Before this potential can be unlocked however there are some significant challenges that need to be overcome. These include endeavouring to open more data to the public, ensuring this data is relevant, useable, dynamic and linked, ensuring an emphasis on data produced at a local level, and making sure that those seeking to use the data either have the skills necessary to do so or are connected to those who have. One area where there is need for much attention is in the generation of evidence to assist those attempting to formulate open data policy. Particularly, in relation to this consultation we find that there is insufficient evidence available to provide substantive answers to some of the questions posed. In light of this, we have addressed some of the overarching questions below by focusing on some principles relating to open data that we believe need testing. This response proposes some ways that evidence or the conditions for generating evidence might be created.

1. Definitions

There is a need for the terminology to be clearer in relation to the public ownership of online services, i.e. open data is quite separate from other forms of IP (Intellectual property) that gets created when online public services are commissioned. For example, there may be intellectual property which is created (design, software code) that does not constitute public data, but which is suitable for commercial exploitation. Being clear about what information/IP (Intellectual property) is owned will assist the commissioners of online services to identify what data can be made open for public use.
A large amount of open public data is not in a format that allows the “semantic web” to make best use of it. Therefore, we recommend that open public data is published in a format that allows it to be “Linked” ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linked_Data )

2. Decisions

It is our belief that all newly-generated data should be “Open by Default”, with the responsibility being on the collector of the data to provide evidence as to why they believe the data should be kept closed. While testing some issues such as whether or not opening data compromises individuals’ rights to privacy is likely to be feasible, testing for other factors such as the cost versus benefit of opening particular data may not be so. The costs of opening data depend on a range of factors such as the current and future costs of securely storing data that is not made public and the effort in ensuring data reaches standards set across a particular sector. The benefits of opening data may be impossible to calculate given the plethora of uses that may be made of a given dataset.

3. Why Pay For Public Services Data?

Currently we find that there is a dearth of evidence that could be used to answer the above questions. One way of creating such useful evidence would be the trial of different business models to examine which models can effectively serve the area. We feel it would be extremely difficult to propose how much should be charged for data and in what circumstances without evidence on how such scenarios would play out in a market setting. A suspension of costs should be imposed as it would allow different models to be tested to give data providers and those attempting to establishing policy in the area a more informed view of how and when to charge for data. Locking the data away or asserting prices will only serve to reduce the experimentation in this area. Once the value and costs of providing different datasets has been tested, it would be possible to start charging for updates following a “Freemium” business model. Mechanisms such as auctions allowing potential new service developers to bid for commercial licenses may in time be another useful way of assessing market value, but only when there are published data about the value created by existing services.

Having said all of this, we acknowledge the cost implications of making a large number of datasets freely available. A less ambitious option is to open a number of datasets that have strong potential to spawn useful third-party services, and pilot their up-take and business models in the way we suggest above. This would also make it possible to develop and test different standards and infrastructures for open data that could then rolled out more widely across the public sector.

4. How Do We Get The Right Balance?

In principle the range of bodies obliged to publish their public data might extend beyond just the providers of public services and local and national governments to include all publicly funded activities. This may not be feasible in all cases, for example when private organizations receive only a minimal amount of public backing, and perhaps when funding is given through a publicly backed intermediary but even in such cases an approach could be taken to require publicly funded projects to open the data they produce from these activities. However, the “net” of who should be obliged to make their data open should be cast as wide as possible.

5. Publication Of Data By Public Service Providers

Publication of data by public service providers is an area where the generation of more evidence would be extremely helpful. There are many potential mechanisms that could be tested in this regard. One is a challenge model where public service providers are rewarded based on how they fare on for example the use of the data they produce, the usefulness of their data, how well linked their data is etc.
Another methodology is to encourage and incentivize data providers to work more closely with those that can transform the data into useful information. “Improving Access to Government through Better Use of the Web” program is an example of how this can happen. The project showed how local authorities can work with digital agencies to unlock their data and provide really useful web-based services for their citizens.

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

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New Teachers As Vital Members Of The Teaching Workforce

The demand for new teachers has been climbing steadily since the 1990s and is expected to continue in the foreseeable future given the increases in teacher retirement and student enrollment, lower pupil/teacher ratios, and rising teacher attrition rates. New teachers enter the profession with varying degrees of preparation, ranging from extensive coursework and classroom experience to no preparation at all. They often need special attention and support to reach their full potential as educators, but this support is sorely lacking in many schools-which may explain why large numbers of new teachers leave the profession after just a few years of teaching.

The standards movement has put teacher quality at the center of educational reform. Conceived broadly, teacher quality consists of three elements: teacher knowledge, teacher qualifications, and teacher practice. In turn, these elements are affected by individual school factors and by working conditions such as class size, professional support, and school leadership. They are also affected by systemic variables such as state and local policies on teacher preparation, certification, and salaries.

Teachers operate in complex, multidimensional environments, so the direct impact of teaching on student outcomes can be difficult to isolate. However, by linking student achievement to individual teachers, researchers have been able to confirm that some teachers have a lasting, positive impact on student performance, while others have a negligible or negative impact on the performance of students with similar profiles. A simple definition of teacher quality has emerged from this research, namely, the ability to increase student learning during a school year, regardless of a student’s initial academic standing. But this definition, which points to academic growth as an indicator of effectiveness, does not explain why and how some teachers are more effective than others. The research that has been done on teacher credentials, while informative, does not address the actual quality of classroom instruction-a dynamic much more difficult to measure due, in part, to the lack of consensus on what type of instruction is most effective. Definitions of effective teacher practice, therefore, must also factor in variations in curriculum and instruction, along with the relationship between curriculum and instruction and the variables that affect that relationship.

Based on five principles that describe the qualities and attributes of effective teachers, the standards have been broadly adopted by the education community as a measure of teacher excellence:
– Best teachers base their instruction on knowledge of child development.
– They are committed to students and their learning.
– They know the subjects they are teaching and how to teach those subjects to diverse learners.
– They are able to effectively organize the classroom environment to engage students in the learning process and to sustain their learning so that instructional goals are met.
– Accomplished teachers are active members of learning communities; they systematically examine and improve their practice and learn from their experiences, and they are aware of the policies and resources that can benefit their students.

Teacher perceptions and attitudes are, nonetheless, quite important since a teacher’s sense of efficacy plays a large role in the decision to remain in the profession. Some teachers-typically those entering the profession through an alternative pathway- do not receive any kind of classroom exposure prior to their first teaching assignment. They felt this lack of preparation placed them and their students at a distinct disadvantage. One commented on how it was “unfair to students to subject them to teachers who have had no student teaching or internships before teaching a class.” Another reason for why teachers do not feel well prepared is a mismatch between the instructional pedagogy they were exposed to in their education programs and that practiced in the schools to which they are assigned. One teacher commented that the range of instructional strategies she learned in her education program would have helped her reach her students. However, because the district office had different instructional mandates, she had to use strategies that ran contrary to those she had learned during her pre-service education. “Out-of-license” teachers also felt unprepared. A high school teacher assigned to teach a math class dug out old college texts to try to refresh her math skills since she had received no math preparation during pre-service training. Several teachers assigned to special education classes said they had no prior special education instructional experience or background.

Teachers who described themselves as being least prepared were those with no educational preparation, other than a bachelor’s degree, and no educational training or support. Older teachers entering the profession as a career change felt they were able to draw upon prior work experiences to help them in their current teaching roles; most admitted, however, that nothing really sufficiently prepared them for the unique challenges of being a new teacher. The level of student ability also influenced the teachers’ sense of preparation. Teachers felt more prepared to teach students who were advanced or at grade level than students who were English language learners, below grade level in literacy or math, or had other special needs. Some teachers, despite their inexperience, were asked to teach a wide span of grades, as well as special education classes. These teachers felt they needed a great deal of support.

Quality teaching includes not only mastery of subject matter and how to teach it, but a belief in the potential of all children to learn, an abiding ethic of care, and the creativity to inspire children who would otherwise be lost.

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

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New Teachers Commend Principals Who Are Instructional Leaders

New teachers commend principals who are instructional leaders, and those who encourage them to participate in professional development opportunities and get involved in the school community. Since new teachers often feel overwhelmed, they are not always sure what opportunities are available to them, how to allocate their time, or how they will be perceived if they participate in certain activities. Having guidance and support from the principal made these decisions much easier and gave teachers evidence that the principals cared about their professional development.

Teachers greatly appreciated being observed in the classroom by their principals. Despite how anxiety producing this could be, teachers felt getting direct feedback and guidance was critical to their growth. The only complaints teachers had regarding observations was that there were not enough of them and that the principal was too gentle in critiquing them, thus limiting the usefulness of the observation.

Support from principals for disciplinary decisions was another important factor in job satisfaction. Inevitably, situations concerning student discipline, some involving parents, are brought to the attention of the principal. New teachers were highly gratified, and sometimes surprised, when the principal publicly supported their decisions.

More often than not, however, teachers found that principals fell short in giving them support. Some teachers said they had little contact with their principals. They described principals who were not instructional leaders and did little to bring teachers together to work with one another. Some teachers said their principals directly contributed to tensions in the teaching staff. Teachers also felt that principals, as well as other administrators, did not spend enough time in classroom observation and in providing feedback. Some teachers had not received any direct observation from a principal. Also, principals were not always helpful in giving teachers guidance. Some would criticize teachers and tell them what they did wrong, but not offer any advice on what they should be doing or show them how to do it.

Principals who were ineffective building managers, and those who lacked organization and planning skills, also created stress for new teachers. Some teachers had difficulty dealing with school schedules and procedures. In some schools, schedules often changed without prior notice or explanation, disrupting instructional plans. In others, principals did not have the curriculum or instructional materials available for new teachers when the school year started. This is a particularly critical issue for new teachers who, typically, have not had the opportunity to accumulate resources and materials.

Advice for Teacher Education Programs

– Prepare every teacher to teach students with special learning needs, English language learners, and students achieving below grade level. A focus on the skills needed to teach these students should be integrated throughout the preparation program, to include coursework and field experiences.

– Prepare teachers to address academic diversity. A focus on heterogeneous instruction- meeting the needs of students with a broad range of skill levels in the same classroom- should be an integral part of preparation programs, fieldwork, and in-service professional development.

– Incorporate opportunities for teachers planning to teach in urban schools to gain experience working in diverse communities prior to their first teaching assignment.

Advice for School Systems

– Provide good working conditions. Smaller class sizes; a secure environment; and adequate facilities, equipment, and materials will attract more teachers to the profession and keep them there longer.

– Give new teachers a coherent, clearly articulated school program. Administrative responsibilities should be laid out at the beginning of the school year. Changes in the daily school schedule should be kept to a minimum.

– Don’t ask teachers to teach courses in which they have neither training nor expertise. If there are teacher shortages, give teachers professional support with the subject matter and the kinds of students they are being assigned to teach.

– Provide opportunities for teachers to observe and be observed by experienced teachers.

– Give new teachers more contact with school administrators.

– Give teachers adequate time to participate in on- and off-site induction activities.

– Assign mentors to all first-year teachers.

– Choose experienced teachers as mentors and match them to new teachers according to subject-area and grade-level expertise.

– Carefully select mentors; do not assign or force teachers into the mentor role.

– Give mentors ongoing training and support to help them articulate expectations for teachers and plan how they work together.

– Have mentors first meet with new teachers before the school year begins.

– Build sufficient meeting time into the schedules of new teachers and their mentors.

– Limit the teacher caseload, teaching assignments, and administrative responsibilities of mentors to give them sufficient time with new teachers.

– Give new teachers opportunities to observe and be observed by their mentors.

– Provide mentoring to long-term substitutes. Assess how mentoring policies impact individuals waiting to be assigned to permanent positions.

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

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Targeted Recruitment Efforts And Specific Hiring Strategies For New Teachers

Shortages of teachers are often most acute in certain fields, particularly bilingual/English as a Second Language, special education, mathematics, Spanish, and the physical sciences. Sometimes students are taught by a revolving door of substitutes. Other times students from the affected class are added temporarily or permanently to different classes, thereby increasing class size. When substitutes are not available, which is frequently the case, other teachers may be assigned to “cover” the class during their preparation periods, a practice which solves the immediate problem but has long-term consequences for staff morale and attendance when teachers become exhausted and frustrated. It is difficult to ask students to take their education seriously when their school appears incapable of providing them with a regular teacher.

The most common vacancy areas were special education and middle school classroom teacher. While some vacancies may seem minuscule, it is not minor from the perspective of the students without teachers. The highest-poverty schools are most likely to have teachers hired after the beginning of the school year. The highest-poverty elementary, K-8th grade, and middle schools each had at least twice as many teachers hired after September 15 as their counterparts with less than 80 percent low-income students. The vacancies are concentrated in the same set of high-poverty schools year after year, a situation that is exacerbated by placing the least experienced teachers in these schools.

With about seven percent of the teaching force brand-new in any given year, new teachers can be found in every school. But the school assignment process has the effect of concentrating new teachers disproportionately in positions where it takes the most grit and skill to succeed. New teachers are most likely to be found in the highest-poverty schools. For example, 11 percent of the teachers at schools with at least 90 percent low-income students had less than one full-year of experience in the district, compared to five percent at schools at which less than 80 percent of the students were poor. At schools where 90 percent or more of the students are classified as low-income, the average number of years in the district was 10, and about half of the teachers in these schools had five years or less of previous teaching experience in the district.

The “senior” colleagues may only have a few years’ more experience than the newcomers. The concentration of new teachers in particular schools presents an enormous challenge for mentoring efforts: there are simply not enough veteran teachers to go around. Further, many of the new teachers at middle schools have no experience in the middle grades and had little interest in teaching those grades when they applied to the district. These disparities in teacher experience occur in part because of school transfer rules that provide the first pick of jobs to teachers with the most seniority. A brand new study concluded that the general pattern is for teachers to transfer from higher-poverty schools to those with lower-poverty. The longer a teacher is employed by the system, the more opportunities arise to transfer to a lower-poverty school.

Since new teachers are more likely to be found in high-poverty schools, and new teachers are less likely to be fully certified, it follows that schools with higher percentages of low-income students also have higher percentages of emergency-certified teachers. 82 percent of the teachers at the highest-poverty schools (defined here as 90 percent or more low-income) were certified to teach, compared to 92 percent at schools with the lowest rates of student poverty (less than 80 percent low-income). While this inequity is evident in each of the years we examined, the disparity between highest- and lowest-poverty schools has intensified over the three years since 2017. The inequity has grown in part because, while certification rates declined across school poverty levels, the highest-poverty schools experienced a larger drop. The highest-poverty schools also tend to have high percentages of minority students. Our data show that the percent of certified teachers at a school declines as the percent of minority students increases. In 2017-2018, 96 percent of the teachers at schools at which less than half of the students were minority were certified, compared to 86 percent at schools with 90 percent or more minority students. From 2018, schools with the lowest minority enrollment maintained roughly equivalent levels of teacher certification, while schools with high-minority populations saw their teacher certification levels drop.

Once hired, new teachers often experience a rough start to the school year. For new teachers, late hiring and school placement mean that they have little time to learn about their school or the neighborhood it serves, meet their colleagues, set up their classrooms, evaluate the teaching materials available to them, or plan appropriate lessons. Those who arrive after school starts sometimes face students who have been taught by a series of substitutes, a situation that often creates a classroom culture of disorder that is difficult to change.

While some school principals do an exemplary job with new teacher induction, high percentages of the respondents to a new survey reported that they finished their first week at the school without basic supports and information from administrators. During this period, two-thirds were not given the district’s Curriculum Scope and Sequence for their courses; nearly three-fourths were not given student forms; a third were not given a staff handbook, and only half were told who their union building representative was. Focus group research indicates that high school teachers receive less assistance than teachers at other school levels. There were, however, some significant differences in their responses on these and other items by school level. For example, elementary school teachers were more likely than others to say they felt safe in their buildings, and substantially higher proportions of new high school teachers reported that their buildings were clean (39 percent) and that students were added or removed from their classes on a daily basis (45 percent).

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/10268668

Instructional Strategies For Science Teaching

The overall goal of this paper is threefold: (a) to broaden science knowledge and conceptions; (b) to reinforce the power to use a scientific inquiry; (c) to integrate new programs with the core curriculum. New measures are designed to function a field-based, staff-centered, professional delivery system that meets the support needs required by schools to broaden expertise in implementing science literacy and to revamp preschool learning environments into science-rich and student-centered settings. As new programs implement an integrated approach to developing science literacy and communication skills to further the training of preschool children. Teaching scientific process skills improves the power to foster a fundamental set of “learning to learn” skills. This approach not only develops their ability for using process skills in self-directed learning, but also enhances their ability to interact in learning processes that need problem-solving.

Increasingly, educators have come to look at children as active constructors of their own learning, instead of passive recipients of knowledge. consistent with this view, learning is an interpretive process during which learners actively construct their own understanding of the world by building on their previous experience and knowledge then communicating their understanding and their ideas.

Thus, achieving a world-class standard of science literacy among this nation’s next generation of youngsters and youth requires major rethinking in curriculum reform. For too long, our education system has viewed the technique of learning science as a process of meaningful learning and textbook dependent activities. Science learning can and will specialise in stimulating, real-world problems that provoke and nurture children’s natural curiosity, insight, and skill to find out. Today, there’s an increasing call among science educators for fundamental changes in course content and modes of instruction to extend students’ preparedness in science.

The aim of this study is twofold: (a) to supply professional development for teachers, assistants, and parents of low-income preschool children through a science-rich, student-centered environment that emphasizes the evolution of appropriate skills and attitudes in using an inquiry approach to science literacy; and (b) to organize participants to make a lifelong interest in science for themselves and therefore the students. Science curriculum materials are going to be developed to help teachers and parents to heighten and nurture children and families’ willingness to study and to become more capable, comfortable, confident and passionate about increasing their own and therefore the children’s “natural curiosity” about the world.

New programs seek to enhance the capacity of families and teachers to raise and enhance the lives of young children in three specific ways: (a) ensuring that all children start school able to learn; (b) enhancing teachers’ ability to foster the science literacy of youngsters and parents; and (c) promoting partnerships to extend parental involvement and participation.

Findings from an ethnographic interview that specialize in the teaching and learning of science show that the teachers, assistants, and parents have increased their ability to make and manage school learning environments that provide preschool learners with a chance to test their own ideas, engage in cooperative learning and exploration, learn from the ideas of their colleagues, and generalize from one context to another. New criteria have also transferred the science inquiry approach to learning both at home and in other educational environments, like museums, zoos, aquariums, libraries, and other cultural and academic resources.

The classroom tasks became more student directed, collaborative, and interactive. Teachers are incorporating science activities into other learning situations, thereby fostering communication development. Children are asking more questions and communicating more with one another. Much has been accomplished, suggesting that expanding the Science program could lead on to even greater effectiveness of ensuring that children start school able to learn.

Several policy and practical implications may be drawn from the work done. First, new programs must involve parents in their efforts to reinforce the lives and learning of youngsters and make sure that all children start school able to learn. Parental behavioral expectations for his or her children have important long-term implications in children’s “natural curiosity” to discover. Second, collaboratively involving teachers and guardians in new activities enhances children’s capacity to study in class and at home. Intervention programs designed to incorporate parents and teachers have a robust and positive impact on promoting the readiness of youngsters to learn. In order to bolster the sustained readiness of all children to study, support must be provided for collaboration among schools, parents, and therefore the community as ideas for useful strategies are developed, implemented, and evaluated.

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

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The Effectiveness Of Academic Standards

This paper presents highlights from a synthesis of research findings associated with schoolwide projects. The synthesis focuses on three aspects: (a) characteristics of faculties and districts with a comprehensive education; (b) programmatic and organizational components of educational achievement and (c) evidence of the effectiveness of organizing operations, particularly in terms of student performance. Additionally, several precautions associated with the interpretation of those findings are presented. Finally, implications are discussed for future evaluation and for administrators in schools and districts with top academic standards. The new education programs have provided supplementary resources to schools with large numbers of low-income students for over three decades. Recent federal legislation has encouraged schools to adopt new projects which permit schools to use funds more flexibly and strengthen their overall capacity to develop more comprehensive strategies to assist disadvantaged children. Funds are often employed by schools to enhance their entire program instead of targeting services to satisfy the requirements of the foremost disadvantaged populations. Despite the dramatic increase within the number of educational standards, however, there remain a variety of questions on their effectiveness relative to traditional programming. The new projects have operated in elementary schools in large, urban districts and have had high concentrations of poverty and academic disadvantage. School districts and state education agencies have frequently played a central role within the initiation and establishment of coordination and integration and most faculties spent a comparatively short period of time within the process of designing and wishes assessment.

New academic standards have allowed schools to introduce new activities and programs also as strengthen existing ones. Emphasis has been placed totally on strengthening existing programs and schools have designed assistance for it. However, a variety of common components have emerged, including reduction of class size through hiring of additional staff and increased staff development activities, revised decision making structures (e.g., teacher input into decisions affecting the school), and increased efforts to involve parents. Within the majority of schools, services became indistinguishable from the regular program at the school, which indicates that the traditionally fragmented or categorical approach to providing services is becoming less common. Some schools have introduced or strengthened aspects of classroom instruction or curricula, frequently incorporating components associated with effective schools. There’s also evidence that the planning process increased the capacity of schools and teachers to supply instructional services more flexibly, as particular student needs arise. These preliminary findings lend some insight into the components which are included as elements of support and start to make the idea for an understanding of what rises a typical implementation of the academic standards.

Principals report a variety of both advantages and drawbacks associated with schoolwide projects. The overwhelming majority of principals, operating for a minimum of three years, reported that evidence favored the new projects. Further, of these schools considered to comprise the primary group of projects, only 9% did not show the achievement gains required to continue. Although these broad indicators are generally positive, information about the impact on student achievement remains limited. The richest information about student performance derives from a couple of studies which are conducted within particular school districts. These district-level studies focus on comparison of bell-shaped curve equivalent reading and math scores for schools with and without new projects. Their designs, measures, and analytic methods vary widely, however, creating difficulties in drawing conclusions and comparing findings across studies. Of those studies that conduct tests of statistical significance, most report only a couple of serious differences in measures of student performance between schools. The findings from these district-level studies suggest mixed effects (both positive and negative) on student achievement scores that tend to be small. Further, several cautions must be considered within the interpretation of those findings, including the project implementation, the methodological difficulties inherent to the study, and therefore the limited district-level studies.

Evaluation of the new projects must continue beyond the initial phase of implementation and will be longitudinal and to capture effects which will not be fully apparent during the primary years. Because there are a variety of methodological challenges inherent to the study (e.g., varying implementation strategies across sites), evaluation design must be particularly thoughtful. Further, subsequent evaluations should still explore the role of school districts and to pursue a far better understanding of the mechanisms through which particular characteristics of educational standards cause changes in educational outcomes. The comprehensive plan has the potential to deal with three interrelated challenges within the nation’s most disadvantaged schools. First, to supply flexibility to our teachers to deal with the disadvantaged students. Second, to scale back curricular and instructional fragmentation within the classroom. Third, and of immediate interest to national policymakers, to be designed to enhance accountability at a time when there’s growing public concern over the overall quality of public education. Because the starting points incorporate a stronger accountability component, they provide the organizational potential to satisfy new federal legislative expectations for the new programs. Further, schools and districts implementing new projects can take the chance to travel beyond basic accountability requirements and consider broadening the ways the evaluation and the assessment are used. For instance, student assessment may additionally be used to guide instruction and improve teaching practice. Schoolwide projects also create a context during which roles of principals and district staff could be expanded or redefined. District staff might emphasize methods for phasing out pullout programs or for integrating traditional reading and math curriculum for the entire school. The chance to redefine decision-making roles at the school can also facilitate the creation of structures which better serve students. For instance, professional networks among teachers within the school could be fostered which encourage teachers to “buy into” aspects of the new project approach and cultivate changes at the classroom level. Similarly, new projects offer opportunities to explore broader governance issues. New alternative approaches to the functions of and relationships between the district, school, and classroom are often explored alongside parental involvement.

The research on the effectiveness of the new projects in terms of student performance has yielded mixed and largely inconclusive results. Nonetheless, the very fact that perceptions by district and school staff about continuation of the latest projects suggest that subsequent evaluations may begin to indicate more positive effects. It should be noted that these reflect only some of the tutorial standards within the nation; it’s therefore critical that reliable, longitudinal evaluations still be conducted beyond this first phase.

Jeff C. Palmer is a teacher, success coach, trainer, Certified Master of Web Copywriting and founder of https://Ebookschoice.com. Jeff is a prolific writer, Senior Research Associate and Infopreneur having written many eBooks, articles and special reports.

Article Source: https://EzineArticles.com/expert/Jeff_C._Palmer/2667816

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